Computer generated randomisation sequence

In addition to the Team Designate, Prep-to-Play Observers (research assistants blinded to randomisation) will make five random visits (≥one prior to the intervention period and ≥two after the intervention period) to observe the execution of Prep-to-Play in order to validate team use data from the Team Designates. Secondary Outcome Measures :Good Essays. 1184 Words. 5 Pages. Open Document. To prevent bias and confounding in treatment assignment, randomization was completed. 10 (5 men, 5 women) participants (see Table 1) were each evaluated in person at the Howard University Speech and Hearing Clinic. Each of which provided written informed consent for participation. RANDOM.ORG - Sequence Generator Random Sequence Generator This form allows you to generate randomized sequences of integers. The randomness comes from atmospheric noise, which for many purposes is better than the pseudo-random number algorithms typically used in computer programs. Part 1: Sequence Boundaries Smallest value (limit -1,000,000,000) An alternative to using large block sizes is to use random sequences of block sizes, which can be done in StatsDirect by specifying a block size of zero. The random block size option selects block sizes of 2, 3, or 4 (at random) times the number of treatments. The randomization proceeds by allocating random permutations of treatments within ...Computers do generate random numbers and they don't. That depends on how you define randomness to be. Practically random number generator should generate numbers devoid of any pattern and it the next in the sequence should not be discernible by any means. There are certain cryptographic algorithms that achieve the same to a desirable level.Good Essays. 1184 Words. 5 Pages. Open Document. To prevent bias and confounding in treatment assignment, randomization was completed. 10 (5 men, 5 women) participants (see Table 1) were each evaluated in person at the Howard University Speech and Hearing Clinic. Each of which provided written informed consent for participation. You can also add alphanumeric lists or words (like a,b,c or apple, orange, banana). If you have a range with negative numbers, you can enter it using a ':' (like -1000:-100). To generate a non-repeating sequence, generate same amount of numbers as present in the range. (e.g. 10 numbers from 1-10 will produce a shuffled sequence from 1-10)Oct 23, 2017 · A computer-generated randomisation sequence is used, and randomisation is stratified by centre, gender and by known cognitive decline [measured by the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)] . We have opted for a 2:1 randomisation ratio to deal with the concern expressed by clinical leads that a 1:1 randomisation ... The physiotherapy clinics were randomly allocated to either ABPI or standard physiotherapy by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Following randomisation, consecutive potential participants referred by an insurance company to the clinics, were screened and recruited by a clinical administrator by telephone to book an initial ...May 09, 2019 · The physiotherapy clinics were randomly allocated to either ABPI or standard physiotherapy by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Following randomisation, consecutive potential participants referred by an insurance company to the clinics, were screened and recruited by a clinical administrator by telephone to book an initial ... A computer executes code that is based on a set of rules to be followed. For PRNGs in general, those rules revolve around the following: Accept some initial input number, that is a seed or key. Apply that seed in a sequence of mathematical operations to generate the result. That result is the random number. free platinum songbook The person generating the randomisation list and / or allocation concealment should not be involved in the later implementation of the sequence. If the sequence is generated by computer, the seed used in the randomisation should be fixed and documented but vary from study to This is not acceptable for many purposes, therefore, StatsDirect seeds the random number generator with a number taken from the computer's clock (the number of hundredths of a second which have elapsed since midnight). It is highly improbable that StatsDirect will produce the same "random" sequence more than once, the time is stamped on ...May 09, 2019 · The physiotherapy clinics were randomly allocated to either ABPI or standard physiotherapy by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Following randomisation, consecutive potential participants referred by an insurance company to the clinics, were screened and recruited by a clinical administrator by telephone to book an initial ... Eventually, the sequence will repeat—exactly how many random numbers a source generates before repeating depends on the algorithm that source employs. Furthermore, when generated numbers are viewed in binary, some of the bits in a number may be more or less predictable depending on the random source's algorithm. Performance.Random numbers can be generated by computer or can come from a random number table found in most statistics textbooks. For some simple randomized controlled trials with small sample sizes, randomization ... allocated to patients in sequence based on random number without any restriction. Although unrestricted randomization is an acceptable ...RANDOMISATION: SEQUENCE GENERATION Type of randomisations Examples Simple Randomization with no constraints to generate an allocation sequence. "We generated the two comparison groups using simple randomization, with an equal allocation ratio, by referring to a table of random numbers".A computer executes code that is based on a set of rules to be followed. For PRNGs in general, those rules revolve around the following: Accept some initial input number, that is a seed or key. Apply that seed in a sequence of mathematical operations to generate the result. That result is the random number.A computer executes code that is based on a set of rules to be followed. For PRNGs in general, those rules revolve around the following: Accept some initial input number, that is a seed or key. Apply that seed in a sequence of mathematical operations to generate the result. That result is the random number.A subgroup of up to 2000 newborns will be followed up at 1-2 weeks and 4-6 weeks postnatal to collect secondary outcome data (secondary objectives 7-9). Five of the 10 trial clusters will be randomly selected to participate in this part of the study. The randomisation sequence will be computer-generated and allocated by the trial ...requested, then it produces a single sequence of random assignment, i.e. simple randomization. 3. Stratified Randomization Imbalance randomization in numbers of subjects reduces statistical power, but imbalance in prognostic factors is also more likely inefficient for estimating treatment effect. TrialMay 09, 2019 · The physiotherapy clinics were randomly allocated to either ABPI or standard physiotherapy by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Following randomisation, consecutive potential participants referred by an insurance company to the clinics, were screened and recruited by a clinical administrator by telephone to book an initial ... a computer generated random number table,whereas strategies such as allocating every second patient to the intervention group are quasi›random, predictable, and, open to manipu› lation. Once the randomisation sequence has been established, the second process involves the concealment of that sequence.Using a computer-generated randomisation sequence, we selected 12 matched pairs of eligible hospitals. Within pairs, the hospitals were allocated to intervention or control groups with restricted randomisation in January, 2007. Randomisation and masking Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to one of two groups according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence (provided by an external vendor [ICON Clinical Research, North Wales, PA, USA]) with an automated interactive voice response system. Randomisation was stratifi ed by previous treatment (newly diagnosed orA subgroup of up to 2000 newborns will be followed up at 1-2 weeks and 4-6 weeks postnatal to collect secondary outcome data (secondary objectives 7-9). Five of the 10 trial clusters will be randomly selected to participate in this part of the study. The randomisation sequence will be computer-generated and allocated by the trial ...health literacy, white race, and randomisation to the video arm. In multivariable analysis, participants in the video group were more likely to prefer comfort care than those in the verbal group (adjusted odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 8.6). Participants were re-interviewed after six weeks. Among the 94/106 (89%)Participants were randomised to treatment group after they had started standard tuberculosis treatment. The randomisation sequence was computer generated. Allocation concealment was ensured by the use of sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. An independent observer, blinded to the allocated treatment, assessed the primary outcome.RANDOM SEQUENCE GENERATION Selection bias (biased allocation to interventions) due to inadequate generation of a randomised sequence. Criteria for a judgement of 'Low risk' of bias. The investigators describe a random component in the sequence generation process such as: Referring to a random number table; Using a computer random number cheap commodores for sale Randomisation was done by dynamic allocation, by use of a minimisation algorithm generated by the Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne, Australia. Stratification.' Reason: the method of generating the random sequence has been described and seems to be adequate. Low riskMar 31, 2020 · interest in two-dimensional and three-dimensional real-time computer generated holography. Phase randomisation is an integral part of holographic projection as it ensures independence in sub-frame techniques and reduces the edge enhancement seen in flat-phase images. Phase randomisation requires, however, Randomisation depends primarily on two interrelated but separate processes (i.e., generation of an unpredictable randomised allocation sequence and concealment of that sequence until assignment occurs [allocation concealment]). Here, we focus on how such a sequence can be generated. In Chapter 14 we address allocation concealment.An independent data manager developed the computer-generated list of random numbers using the randomisation tool in 19Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). Administrators of the randomisation procedure is blinded to block sizes and randomisation sequence at all times during the trial period.Oct 23, 2017 · A computer-generated randomisation sequence is used, and randomisation is stratified by centre, gender and by known cognitive decline [measured by the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)] [ 14 ]. a computer generated random number table,whereas strategies such as allocating every second patient to the intervention group are quasi›random, predictable, and, open to manipu› lation. Once the randomisation sequence has been established, the second process involves the concealment of that sequence.Computer generated randomisation sequence with 1:1 ratio; Allocation was concealed by using sequential numbered cases with pre-prepared drug and dummy placebo; Double blind, double dummy design Both groups received infusion and bolus, with one being active diuretic and the other being 5% dextrose;One hundred and thirty-two trials (33.6%) generated the sequence through computer software, a table of random numbers or by minimisation method. For a more specific sequence generation methods description, see table 2. View inline View popup Table 2 Methods of sequence generation in physical therapy trials ping g430 conforming list Feb 09, 2002 · Randomisation depends primarily on two interrelated but separate processes—ie, generation of an unpredictable randomised allocation sequence and concealment of that sequence until assignment occurs (allocation concealment). Here, we focus on how such a sequence can be generated. In a subsequent article, we will address allocation concealment. Randomisation of the eight units was conducted eight weeks prior to the study commencement using a computer-generated, random allocation sequence, by an investigator (TPH) who was not involved in recruitment, data collection or in contact with the units. The allocation was then communicated to the chief investigator (AMH) who informed the unitAn alternative to using large block sizes is to use random sequences of block sizes, which can be done in StatsDirect by specifying a block size of zero. The random block size option selects block sizes of 2, 3, or 4 (at random) times the number of treatments. The randomization proceeds by allocating random permutations of treatments within ...successful randomisation in practice depends on two interrelated aspects: 1) generation of an unpredictable allocation sequence ( item 16a ), and 2) concealment of that sequence until assignment irreversibly occurs. 233; 241 the allocation concealment mechanism aims to prevent participants and recruiters from knowing the study group to which the …Feb 09, 2002 · Randomisation depends primarily on two interrelated but separate processes—ie, generation of an unpredictable randomised allocation sequence and concealment of that sequence until assignment occurs (allocation concealment). Here, we focus on how such a sequence can be generated. In a subsequent article, we will address allocation concealment. Among those which provided details on randomisation (149, 60.1%), only 39 (26.2%) used a computer-generated randomisation sequence (the preferred approach), 70 (47.0%) used a random number table, whereas others (40, 26.8%) adopted inadequate methods (eg, coin tossing, visit order) to generate the randomisation sequence.Box 1: Key elements of random sequence to specify in trial protocols Method of sequence generation (e.g., random number table or computerised random number generator) Allocation ratio ( Item 8) (e.g., whether participants are allocated with equal or unequal probabilities to interventions) burning love lighters RANDOM SEQUENCE GENERATION Selection bias (biased allocation to interventions) due to inadequate generation of a randomised sequence. Criteria for a judgement of ‘Low risk’ of bias. The investigators describe a random component in the sequence generation process such as: Referring to a random number table; Using a computer random number Oct 23, 2017 · A computer-generated randomisation sequence is used, and randomisation is stratified by centre, gender and by known cognitive decline [measured by the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)] . We have opted for a 2:1 randomisation ratio to deal with the concern expressed by clinical leads that a 1:1 randomisation ... Select a checklist to explore: Contact News Blog: Twitter: Youtube: Loading checklists ... Randomisation - the process of assigning participants to groups so that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to a given group - is often used in medical research. It ensures different groups being studied have similar characteristics when the study begins, allowing a fair comparison.Random Sampling Techniques. There are 4 types of random sampling techniques: 1. Simple Random Sampling. Simple random sampling requires using randomly generated numbers to choose a sample. More specifically, it initially requires a sampling frame, a list or database of all members of a population.You can then randomly generate a number for each element, using Excel for example, and take the ...List Randomizer. This form allows you to arrange the items of a list in random order. The randomness comes from atmospheric noise, which for many purposes is better than the pseudo-random number algorithms typically used in computer programs.The sequence may be generated by the process of simple randomization or restricted randomization. Simple randomization is based on a single sequence of random assignments and is particularly suited to large trials. It is possible that by chance alone the groups might be imbalanced with respect to important prognostic factors.Computer generated randomisation sequence with 1:1 ratio; Allocation was concealed by using sequential numbered cases with pre-prepared drug and dummy placebo; Double blind, double dummy design Both groups received infusion and bolus, with one being active diuretic and the other being 5% dextrose;Randomization with no constraints to generate an allocation sequence is called simple randomization or unrestricted randomization. In principle, this could be achieved by allocating interventions using methods such as repeated coin-tossing, throwing dice or dealing previously shuffled cards (Schulz 2002c, Schulz 2006).Among those which provided details on randomisation (149, 60.1%), only 39 (26.2%) used a computer-generated randomisation sequence (the preferred approach), 70 (47.0%) used a random number table, whereas others (40, 26.8%) adopted inadequate methods (eg, coin tossing, visit order) to generate the randomisation sequence. blank drivers license carddownload ghost tube paranormalParticipants were randomised to treatment group after they had started standard tuberculosis treatment. The randomisation sequence was computer generated. Allocation concealment was ensured by the use of sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. An independent observer, blinded to the allocated treatment, assessed the primary outcome.Nov 14, 2016 · Participants were randomised to treatment or control group using a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Participants were allocated to either group with the randomisation sequence concealled in sequentially numbered, opaque sealed envelopes. An outcome assessor blinded to participants’ allocated group assessed the primary outcome. RANDOM.ORG - Sequence Generator Random Sequence Generator This form allows you to generate randomized sequences of integers. The randomness comes from atmospheric noise, which for many purposes is better than the pseudo-random number algorithms typically used in computer programs. Part 1: Sequence Boundaries Smallest value (limit -1,000,000,000) The randomisation sequence (the sequence of allocations, such as ABAABABABB etc.) needs to be generated by a robust process and the allocation to the groups A or B must be concealed from the person recruiting the schools or pupils until after the allocation has been done. Independent and concealed allocation can alwaysbe achieved.Immediately before induction of anaesthesia, the patients were allotted to one of the two study groups using the computer-generated randomisation list described below. The groups were "conventional sequence", i.e. cuff inflation then device fixation, and "study sequence", i.e. device fixation then cuff inflation.An independent statisti- cian provided the computer-generated randomisation sequence, stratified by newly diagnosed or relapsing AAV. Randomisation was centralised through electronic case-report forms (eCRF) to assure allocation concealment. Treatment allocation was known by patients and clinicians.Compare this to Alice generating a 20 digit pseudorandom sequence, using a four-digit random seed. Now, this is equivalent to a uniform selection from 10,000 possible initial seeds, meaning she can only generate 10,000 different sequences, which is a vanishingly small fraction of all possible sequences. When we move from random to pseudorandom ...RANDOM SEQUENCE GENERATION Selection bias (biased allocation to interventions) due to inadequate generation of a randomised sequence. Criteria for a judgement of 'Low risk' of bias. The investigators describe a random component in the sequence generation process such as: Referring to a random number table; Using a computer random numberOnline 3- or 6-block randomisation (central computer generated sequence) and allocation of consenting participants was performed by the York Trials Unit using a 1:2 ratio (1 three: 2 single). This was done in order to minimise a potential increase in demand on usual services from participating in a trial actively seeking to recruit patients.When analysing the sequence generation categories, we found that 229 trials (58.27%) did not clearly report the mechanism of how the sequence was generated. One hundred and thirty-two trials (33.6%) generated the sequence through computer software, a table of random numbers or by minimisation method.Oct 26, 2020 · A computer executes code that is based on a set of rules to be followed. For PRNGs in general, those rules revolve around the following: Accept some initial input number, that is a seed or key. Apply that seed in a sequence of mathematical operations to generate the result. That result is the random number. netflix new series 2022 Randomisation. After successful screening, participants are assigned to a sequentially numbered study ID. By activating the study ID in the electronic data capture system (secuTrial®), participants are randomized (1:1 ratio, simple randomization) to be given dulaglutide and placebo according to a computer generated randomisation list produced ... According to a computer-generated block randomization list, 120 identical sequentially numbered containers were prepared containing either 2 × 1 ml 4 mg/ml dexamethasone or 2 × 1 ml placebo. The randomization code was kept separately at the Hospital Pharmacy of the Capital Region of Denmark.May 09, 2019 · The physiotherapy clinics were randomly allocated to either ABPI or standard physiotherapy by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Following randomisation, consecutive potential participants referred by an insurance company to the clinics, were screened and recruited by a clinical administrator by telephone to book an initial ... randomisation is usually achieved using a sequence of random numbers from a statistical textbook, or a computer-generated sequence. Permuted block randomisation In a large trial (at least 1000 su bjects), simple randomisation should give a balance in number of patients allocated to each of the groups in the trial, but for a "small" study theRandomisation Following collection of baseline data, schools were randomised (1:1) to trial arms based on computer generated random numbers. An independent statistician generated the allocation sequence, and the trial manager enrolled the clusters and assigned them to the trial arms. Allocation of schools was balanced on: schoolThe mechanism used to generate the randomisation sequence, such as computer-generated, random numbers table, coin toss or other random selection process, should be described in enough detail to enable readers to gauge whether the method used was robust. Simply stating that randomisation was used is not sufficient. openosrs external plugins github The concept of a random sequence is essential in probability theory and statistics.The concept generally relies on the notion of a sequence of random variables and many statistical discussions begin with the words "let X 1,...,X n be independent random variables...". Yet as D. H. Lehmer stated in 1951: "A random sequence is a vague notion... in which each term is unpredictable to the ...You can also add alphanumeric lists or words (like a,b,c or apple, orange, banana). If you have a range with negative numbers, you can enter it using a ':' (like -1000:-100). To generate a non-repeating sequence, generate same amount of numbers as present in the range. (e.g. 10 numbers from 1-10 will produce a shuffled sequence from 1-10)Using a computer-generated randomisation sequence, we selected 12 matched pairs of eligible hospitals. Within pairs, the hospitals were allocated to intervention or control groups with restricted randomisation in January, 2007. Oct 26, 2020 · A computer executes code that is based on a set of rules to be followed. For PRNGs in general, those rules revolve around the following: Accept some initial input number, that is a seed or key. Apply that seed in a sequence of mathematical operations to generate the result. That result is the random number. randomisation refers to the process of assigning study participants to experimental or control groups at random such that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any given group. 10 the main purpose of randomisation is to eliminate selection bias and balance known and unknown confounding factors in order to create a control …Randomisation depends primarily on two interrelated but separate processes (i.e., generation of an unpredictable randomised allocation sequence and concealment of that sequence until assignment occurs [allocation concealment]). Here, we focus on how such a sequence can be generated. In Chapter 14 we address allocation concealment.Working Indian men (aged 35-55 years) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence to a mobile phone messaging intervention or standard care (control group).RANDOMISATION DEPENDS ON:• the generation of an unpredictable allocation sequence 2. the concealment of that sequence ALLOCATION RATIO'S• Equal Allocation Participants have the same chance of being assigned to trial arms • Easily accommodates multiple arm studies • Generally the most efficient design • Easy to implement 2.An independent data manager developed the computer-generated list of random numbers using the randomisation tool in 19Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). Administrators of the randomisation procedure is blinded to block sizes and randomisation sequence at all times during the trial period.Random number generation is a process by which, often by means of a random number generator ( RNG ), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by random chance is generated. This means that the particular outcome sequence will contain some patterns detectable in hindsight but unpredictable to foresight. A random number table found in a statistics book, online random number generators (random.org or randomizer.org), or computer-generated random numbers (e.g., using Microsoft Excel) can also be used for simple randomization of subjects. As explained above, simple randomization may result in an unbalanced design, and, therefore, one should pay ...Among those which provided details on randomisation (149, 60.1%), only 39 (26.2%) used a computer-generated randomisation sequence (the preferred approach), 70 (47.0%) used a random number table, whereas others (40, 26.8%) adopted inadequate methods (eg, coin tossing, visit order) to generate the randomisation sequence.Moderate-to-severe hip pain (a score of four or more on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS)) on average over the last 2 weeks and current hip pain rated as at least 1 out of 10 (on a 0-10 NRS) on the day of assessment [amended, see Table 1] 4. Symptom duration of episode of at least 6 weeks 5. Hip pain occurring on most days of the last month [ 18]computer generated randomisation sequence. Random-isation will be stratified by sex. Intervention description {11a} Control Patients in the control group will receive usual clinical care and will be instructed to maintain their normal dietary and physical activity habits. Home-based resistance exercise Use of online software to generate randomization code using block randomization procedure will be presented. Simple randomization Randomization based on a single sequence of random assignments is known as simple randomization. [ 3] This technique maintains complete randomness of the assignment of a subject to a particular group.A listing of the computer- generated random numbers is provided to facilitate manual reconstruction of the randomization process. Additional listings include the weight-range groups, the study groups by random assign- ... Finally, a complete listing of animals is given in sequence of temporary cage number (Figure 6). ikea bookshelf with doorsJun 01, 2015 · This can either be done literally, or an equivalent procedure may be simulated using a table of random numbers or by using a computer to generate random numbers, as described in Section 2.1. In large trials, the use of such a simple randomization procedure is highly likely to ensure that there are nearly equal numbers of units allocated to the ... Randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding Group allocation was based on computer-generated randomisation sequence in random block sizes of 2 and 4. Opaque, sealed and coded envelopes were used for randomisation. Allocation concealment was optimised by prescribing allocation only after obtaining informedWhen analysing the sequence generation categories, we found that 229 trials (58.27%) did not clearly report the mechanism of how the sequence was generated. One hundred and thirty-two trials (33.6%) generated the sequence through computer software, a table of random numbers or by minimisation method. 6. Simple Randomization • Randomization based on a single sequence of random assignments • basic method of simple randomization is flipping a coin • Computer generated sequence • For example, with two treatment groups (control versus treatment), the side of the coin (i.e., heads - control, tails - treatment) determines the assignment of ...Good Essays. 1184 Words. 5 Pages. Open Document. To prevent bias and confounding in treatment assignment, randomization was completed. 10 (5 men, 5 women) participants (see Table 1) were each evaluated in person at the Howard University Speech and Hearing Clinic. Each of which provided written informed consent for participation. pelonis tower fan cleaningThe sequence may be generated by the process of simple randomization or restricted randomization. Simple randomization is based on a single sequence of random assignments and is particularly suited to large trials. It is possible that by chance alone the groups might be imbalanced with respect to important prognostic factors.1. SPSS as a Random Number Generator. To generate a set of random numbers, we're going to use SPSS's Compute Variable dialog box. Click on Transform -> Compute Variable. You need to do a number of things to set up this dialog box so SPSS will generate random numbers. First, name your target variable.Jun 01, 2015 · Simple random allocation of individuals between the different intervention groups is carried out most conveniently by using a computer. For example, in Microsoft Excel, the instruction ‘= RANDBETWEEN (1,3)’ will produce a random number between 1 and 3, i.e. each of the numbers 1, 2, or 3 has an equal chance of being generated. The rise in virtual and mixed reality systems has prompted a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional and three-dimensional real-time computer generated holography. Phase randomisation is an integral part of holographic projection as it ensures independence in sub-frame techniques and reduces the edge enhancement seen in flat-phase images. Phase randomisation requires, however, the ...yet assessments of the reporting quality of published trials have consistently found major flaws. 3, 11-17 only 9% of trials in specialist journals and 15% in general journals reported both an adequate method of generating random sequences and an adequate method of allocation concealment. 3, 11, 18 of trials reported as double blind, only 45% …Formula 2. Generate random numbers between two numbers. To create a random number between any two numbers that you specify, use the following RAND formula: RAND ()* ( B - A )+ A. Where A is the lower bound value (the smallest number) and B is the upper bound value (the largest number).Randomization with no constraints to generate an allocation sequence is called simple randomization or unrestricted randomization. In principle, this could be achieved by allocating interventions using methods such as repeated coin-tossing, throwing dice or dealing previously shuffled cards (Schulz 2002c, Schulz 2006).Nov 03, 2020 · method of sequence generation must be specified (e.g. random-number table or a computerised random number generator) If study participants are intentionally allocated to groups in different numbers: randomisation ratio should be reported; For block randomisation provide details on: how the blocks were generated; the block size or sizes Using a computer-generated randomisation sequence, we selected 12 matched pairs of eligible hospitals. Within pairs, the hospitals were allocated to intervention or control groups with restricted randomisation in January, 2007. osram ir led xa